The purpose of this study is a review of the literature from 1910 to 1992, where the meanings, definitions,
and descriptions of The purpose of this study is to examine the history of the term "critical thinking" and
related terms. This these terms are examined using philosophical analysis.

The critical thinking movement seems to have begun with the work of John Dewey from 1910 to 1939 and
his use of the terms "reflective thinking" and inquiry" which he based on the scientific method. From 1940
to 1961, Edward M. Glaser, David H. Russell, and B. Othanel Smith broadened the meaning of the term
"critical thinking" to include the examination of statements. With the work of Robert H. Ennis, Karl O.
Budmen, R. R. Allen and Robert K. Rott, and Edward D'Angelo from 1962 to 1979, the meaning of the term
"critical thinking" narrowed to exclude problem solving and the scientific method and include only the
assessment of statements. With the contributions of Robert H. Ennis, John E. McPeck, Harvey Siegel, and
Richard W. Paul from 1980 to the present, the meaning of the term "critical thinking" has broadened to
include aspects of problem solving.

The conclusion of this study is that the meanings of the terms "critical thinking" and "problem solving"
overlap or intersect. Further, this study suggests the continued use of these two terms, but recommends
the introduction of new terms to describe the relationship between the terms "problem solving" and "critical
by James Thomas Streib
Dissertation, The University of Memphis
(formerly Memphis State University)
University Microfilms International (UMI), 1992
(Use UMI Publication Number 9311459 to order through
"History and Analysis of Critical Thinking"